Tenerife, Canary Islands

The Volcano that Haunts the Atlantic


Los Roques de Garcia
The rock formation of Roques de Garcia, in the middle of the Llanos de Ucanca plain.
TF-21
Cars travel the long straight of the TF 21 road that crosses the Las Cañadas caldera.
falling sun
Sun rays refract on an uneven slope of the Caldeira Las Cañadas.
Above all
The massive cone of the Teide volcano (3718m), the highest mountain in the Canaries, Spain and the Atlantic islands.
Paragliders
Paragliders soar above the valley north of the Teide volcano, with Puerto de la Cruz and the Atlantic in the background.
Bread of sugar
Today's main crater and summit of the Teide volcano, known as Pan de Azúcar.
Lava drains
Patches of solidified lava that once flowed from the main crater of the El Teide volcano.
rolling sunset
Sun about to set behind a cloak of Calima. Dry, dusty mist from the Sahara Desert.
The Lava Vegetation
Resilient vegetation survives the aridity of lava from the Caldeira las Cañadas.
The Resisting Snow
Snow contrasts with the ancestral lava from the Las Cañadas caldera of the Teide volcano.
Sugar Pan
Casal walks along a trail at the base of the Pan de Azucar summit crater.
Tarta del Teide
Motorbike takes the hook of the TF-21 road in front of Tarta del Teide, a peculiar geological formation.
The Dragon Tree and the Volcano
Icod's old dragon tree gleams with age, with the much older El Teide volcano in the background.
El Teide Volcano
The top of the great El Teide volcano, the roof of the Canaries, Spain and all the islands in the Atlantic.
With the Great Sun in the West
PN El Teide visitor photographs the plain of Llano de Ucanca.
Paragliders II
Paragliders hover above the meanders of the TF-21 road where Tarta del Teide hides.
Privileged View
An outstanding view of the surrounding pine forest to the cone of the volcano Teide.
At 3718m, El Teide is the roof of the Canaries and Spain. Not only. If measured from the ocean floor (7500 m), only two mountains are more pronounced. The Guanche natives considered it the home of Guayota, their devil. Anyone traveling to Tenerife knows that old Teide is everywhere.

We left a mere minutes after the sun set behind the horizon.

We were advancing along the crest of Tenerife's imperfect triangle above. Left behind La Esperanza and Lomo Pesado, the road cuts through the vast pine forest that has long dominated the island's intermediate slopes.

For a long time, we see little more than the secular trunks, branches and acicular foliage of the pine canariensis.

The extra-purified, lugubrious and mysterious atmosphere arouses an inevitable morning curiosity. At the wheel, Juan Miguel Delporte enlightens us on an assortment of eras and themes, from colonial times when the conquerors confronted the indigenous guanchinet, to the contemporaries in which multimillion-dollar international cycling teams move from bicycles and luggage to Tenerife.

The times they carry out training at altitude there are crucial to their disputed ambition of triumphing in the Pyrenean, Alpine and Apennine stages of the Tour de France, the Tour d'Italia and the Tour de España, to mention just the main ones.

On both sides of the asphalt, successive aquifers gain volume on the north and south slopes below. In either direction, its final destination is the same, the great Atlantic, still sub-tropical but with waters much warmer than those that bathe Iberia.

We were in the middle of Estio. It had been a long time since a rain worthy of the name had replenished the natural reservoir of Tenerife.

The Inagurual Sighting of Colosso Teide

A few kilometers ahead, the Hope Road and Juan Miguel reveal to us the first of several privileged observation points of the great El Teide peak (3718m).

We went up a small hill. We got rid of the pine forest dictatorship. Onwards, to the southwest, we find the cone of the volcano highlighted on a green base, with its ferrous brown out of step with the sky-blue vastness.

In the lower half of the slope below the mountain, generated by gravitational slide, a whitewashed village thickened with the proximity of the darkest blue of the sea.

Juan Miguel had already warned us before. “This has changed and for you it's not good. The day is not as clear as yesterday. During the night the calima came back in." The phenomenon comes with the particular summer of Canary Islands.

Sometimes it happens way out of season. The dry and torrid weather of the south gains supremacy. invade the Islands closer to Africa, especially from Lanzarote to Tenerife. Except the northern ones, like La Palma. It takes over a large part of the archipelago, laden with dust and fine sands taken from the Sara.

As we usually saw it from July onwards, the name of the island used by the Romans makes no sense, Nivaria, according to the snow cover they got used to seeing in the upper section of the mountain, on the clearest days of the year, even from the African coast, the Carthaginians, the Numídios, the Phoenician navigators were also dazzled by its glimpse.

The Romans were not the first to be inspired by it. Despite the rule of Rome and the expansion of the empire to the western ends of the Old World, the baptism that prevailed has an indigenous origin.

Dragoeiro Icod and El Teide volcano, Tenerife, Canary Islands

Teide Volcano in the distance, with Icod's dragon tree in the foreground.

The enigmatic Guanche Exclusivity of Tenerife and the Canaries

The Guanches called her Tene (mountain) ife (white). It is said that it was the Castilian colonists who later, in order to facilitate their pronunciation, added the error between the two terms.

As Juan Miguel elucidates us, the great enigma is how the Guanches ended up in Tenerife and the other Canaries they inhabited. Upon the arrival of European settlers, no other island in Macaronesia was inhabited.

Even taking into account the relative proximity of the Canaries to the west coast of Africa – 300 km from Tenerife, just over 100 km from Lanzarote – and the proven Berber genetics of the Guanches, remains to be seen how they managed to reach the archipelago with cattle, other domestic animals when they did not have the knowledge to build vessels that would ensure the voyage.

Archaeological finds and organic remains that science dated back to half a millennium BC or even older indicate that, in one way or another, the Guanches will have completed the crossing.

Teide Volcano: Geological Origin and Guanche Mythology

By that time, the great El Teide had long been projecting above Tenerife and the Canary firmament.

The dating of an island is almost always inaccurate but, according to scientific studies, it must have been massive underwater eruptions from about 25 million years ago that generated the archipelago.

Tenerife, in particular, was formed through an accretion process of three huge volcanoes shield, initially on an island with three peninsulas added to a massive volcano, Las Cañadas.

At the time when Tenerife welcomed them, the Guanche cultivated the mythological meaning of the mountain that always seemed to guard them. Without great doubts, spectators and victims of more than one eruption or different volcanic manifestation, the aborigines got used to fear the volcano.

They called it hell, in their dialect, Echeyde, the a term the Castilians quickly adapted to El Teide.

For the Guanche, Echeyde Mountain was the sacred abode of Guayota, the evil demon. They believed that Guayota would have kidnapped Magec, the god of light and sun that he imprisoned inside the volcano, casting his world into obscurity, unsurprisingly the mystification of the phenomenon caused by a significant eruption that, like so many others throughout history, by releasing clouds of ash and dust, it will have blocked the sun.

Always apprehensive about what the volcano had in store for them, the Guanches deepened their mythology. The missionaries who later accompanied the European settlers recorded what the natives told them, that their people had begged forgiveness from Achaman, their God of all gods.

This one, agreed. After intense combat, Achamán triumphed over Guayota. He rescued Magec from the depths of Echeyde, closed the hell crater, and imprisoned Guayota within.

The salvage cap, now identified as the Pilón or Pan de Azucar sub-cone, crowned by the smaller crater of Pico del Teide, has not seen eruptions again. Others took place, with reduced expression, in different areas of the huge volcano. Some took place in the middle of the colonial era.

Cristovão Colombo's In-Person Testimony, an Eruption on the Way to the Americas

On August 24, 1492, hours before setting sail for the West Indies and hitting the Americas, Cristovão Colombo narrated in his logbook: “He set sail the next day and spent the night near Tenerife, from whose summit, which is very high, they saw great flames coming out which, astonishing their people, made them understand the foundation and cause of the fire, adding for respect the example of Mount Etna, in Sicily, and several others where the same was seen. ”

Scientists have come to the conclusion that, on that date, Columbus and his sailors will have witnessed the eruption of Boca del Cangrejo, in the south of the island.

It would have been the fifth of Tenerife's historic eruptions, none of them coming from the main crater of Mount Teide. Others followed in the period 1704-1706, recorded in Fasnia, in Siete Fuentes and which caused heavy destruction in the houses on the seafront of Garachico.

One of Pico Viejo, known as Chahorra, between the beginning of June and September 1798. The last was in 1909, from the secondary volcano of Chinyero. We would have to go through these volcanic focuses on Tenerife.

Until then, we proceed through the TF-24 route.

Soon, free of the green shade of the pine trees, dazzled by the geological wall formed by several layers of lava flows, of different textures and tones, in such a way that it received the informal name of Tarte do Teide.

This pie has its own two viewpoints, both revealing the magnificence of the stratovolcano, even more towering over the immense valley shared by La Orotava, Puerto de La Cruz and several other cities, towns, villages, hamlets.

We stop at one of the viewpoints.

From there, we enjoyed a squad of paragliders rising and gliding, in delicious ellipses between the observatory of the Instituto de Astrophysics of the Canary Islands and the ocean floor, much of the time, with the cone of the mountain in the background.

From the Grand Domain of the Las Cañadas Caldera to the Top of Pan de Azúcar

As the sun also ascended to its zenith, the haze intensified. When we enter the domain of the Las Cañadas caldera, formed by the collapse of the homonymous volcano, its dry mist disappoints us.

We strive to ignore photographic adversity.

We point to the Tabonal Negro sector and then to the base of the cable car that connects 2.356 meters to 3.555 meters from the almost top of the main crater, at the foot of the Pilón de Azucar summit.

We are dedicated to following two main trails laid in basalt, irregular to match and that furrow a rough, even sharp, lava environment between ocher and brownish tones.

We followed what led to the Pico Viejo observation point.

And, on the way back, this led to the viewpoint of the Fortaleza, revealing the northern edge of the Las Cañadas caldera and much of the northern coast of Tenerife.

Together, the two opposing panoramas and the one granted by the trail that connected the starting points, revealed to us a geological imposingness for millions of years in the heart of the island.

In different directions, the boiler was covered with different lava flows, some only stopped by the inner side of its edge.

Moments later, we inaugurated the 1200 meters of cable car descent that emulated lava. Gradually, the cabin brought us back to the TF-21 line.

Ocaso in Calima, in Volta dos Roques de Garcia

 

Once again for its asphalt, we aim at the southwest corner of the caldera. We leave the road for the open view of the Llano de Ucanca.

Leaning on the parapet fence that separates the road from the plain, we enjoy the western sun hiding behind a sharp patch of caldera and, at the same time, the gradual orangeing of the rival rocks of Roques de Garcia.

A wedding photographer struggled to photograph a couple in the middle of the road in that subdued light.

Sooner than we estimated, the atmospheric background of calima began to take over the great star.

When we look for it already at the La Ruleta lookout, its yellowish ball shines from the blackened sky and seems to roll over the top of the silhouette among the Roques.

Two lovers seated on a convenient slab, let themselves be infected by the volcanic and cosmic romanticism of the moment.

La Palma, Canary IslandsSpain (España)

The Most Mediatic of the Cataclysms to Happen

The BBC reported that the collapse of a volcanic slope on the island of La Palma could generate a mega-tsunami. Whenever the area's volcanic activity increases, the media take the opportunity to scare the world.
La Palma, Canary Islands

The "Isla Bonita" of the Canary Islands

In 1986 Madonna Louise Ciccone launched a hit that popularized the attraction exerted by a island imaginary. Ambergris Caye, in Belize, reaped benefits. On this side of the Atlantic, the palmeros that's how they see their real and stunning Canaria.
Santa Cruz de La Palma, Canary Islands

A Journey into the History of Santa Cruz de La Palma

It began as a mere Villa del Apurón. Come the century. XVI, the town had not only overcome its difficulties, it was already the third port city in Europe. Heir to this blessed prosperity, Santa Cruz de La Palma has become one of the most elegant capitals in the Canaries.
Lanzarote, Canary Islands

To César Manrique what is César Manrique's

By itself, Lanzarote would always be a Canaria by itself, but it is almost impossible to explore it without discovering the restless and activist genius of one of its prodigal sons. César Manrique passed away nearly thirty years ago. The prolific work he left shines on the lava of the volcanic island that saw him born.
Fuerteventura, Canary Islands, Spain (España)

Fuerteventura's Atlantic Ventura

The Romans knew the Canaries as the lucky islands. Fuerteventura, preserves many of the attributes of that time. Its perfect beaches for the windsurf and the kite-surfing or just for bathing, they justify successive “invasions” by the sun-hungry northern peoples. In the volcanic and rugged interior, the bastion of the island's indigenous and colonial cultures remains. We started to unravel it along its long south.
El Hierro, Canary Islands

The Volcanic Rim of the Canaries and the Old World

Until Columbus arrived in the Americas, El Hierro was seen as the threshold of the known world and, for a time, the Meridian that delimited it. Half a millennium later, the last western island of the Canaries is teeming with exuberant volcanism.
La Graciosa, Canary Islands

The Most Graceful of the Canary Islands

Until 2018, the smallest of the inhabited Canaries did not count for the archipelago. Arriving in La Graciosa, we discover the insular charm of the now eighth island.
PN Timanfaya, Lanzarote, Canary Islands

PN Timanfaya and the Fire Mountains of Lanzarote

Between 1730 and 1736, out of nowhere, dozens of volcanoes in Lanzarote erupted successively. The massive amount of lava they released buried several villages and forced almost half of the inhabitants to emigrate. The legacy of this cataclysm is the current Martian setting of the exuberant PN Timanfaya.
Capelinhos Volcano, Faial, Azores

On the trail of the Capelinhos Mistery

From one coast of the island to the opposite one, through the mists, patches of pasture and forests typical of the Azores, we discover Faial and the Mystery of its most unpredictable volcano.
Fogo Island, Cape Verde

Around the Fogo Island

Time and the laws of geomorphology dictated that the volcano-island of Fogo rounded off like no other in Cape Verde. Discovering this exuberant Macaronesian archipelago, we circled around it against the clock. We are dazzled in the same direction.
Chã das Caldeiras, Fogo Island Cape Verde

A "French" Clan at the Mercy of Fire

In 1870, a Count born in Grenoble on his way to Brazilian exile, made a stopover in Cape Verde where native beauties tied him to the island of Fogo. Two of his children settled in the middle of the volcano's crater and continued to raise offspring there. Not even the destruction caused by the recent eruptions deters the prolific Montrond from the “county” they founded in Chã das Caldeiras.    
Pico Island, Azores

Pico Island: the Azores Volcano with the Atlantic at its Feet

By a mere volcanic whim, the youngest Azorean patch projects itself into the rock and lava apogee of Portuguese territory. The island of Pico is home to its highest and sharpest mountain. But not only. It is a testament to the resilience and ingenuity of the Azoreans who tamed this stunning island and surrounding ocean.

Valencia to Xativa, Spain (España)

Across Iberia

Leaving aside the modernity of Valencia, we explore the natural and historical settings that the "community" shares with the Mediterranean. The more we travel, the more its bright life seduces us.

Matarraña to Alcanar, Spain (España)

A Medieval Spain

Traveling through the lands of Aragon and Valencia, we come across towers and detached battlements of houses that fill the slopes. Mile after kilometer, these visions prove to be as anachronistic as they are fascinating.

Vegueta, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands

Around the Heart of the Royal Canaries

The old and majestic Vegueta de Las Palmas district stands out in the long and complex Hispanization of the Canaries. After a long period of noble expeditions, the final conquest of Gran Canaria and the remaining islands of the archipelago began there, under the command of the monarchs of Castile and Aragon.
Tenerife, Canary Islands

East of White Mountain Island

The almost triangular Tenerife has its center dominated by the majestic volcano Teide. At its eastern end, there is another rugged domain, even so, the place of the island's capital and other unavoidable villages, with mysterious forests and incredible abrupt coastlines.
Fuerteventura, Canary Islands

Fuerteventura - Canary Island and Jangada do Tempo

A short ferry crossing and we disembark in Corralejo, at the top northeast of Fuerteventura. With Morocco and Africa a mere 100km away, we get lost in the wonders of unique desert, volcanic and post-colonial sceneries.
Gran Canaria, Canary Islands

Grand Canary Islands

It is only the third largest island in the archipelago. It so impressed European navigators and settlers that they got used to treating it as the supreme.
Lanzarote, Canary Islands, Spain (España)

José Saramago's Basalt Raft

In 1993, frustrated by the Portuguese government's disregard for his work “The Gospel According to Jesus Christ”, Saramago moved with his wife Pilar del Río to Lanzarote. Back on this somewhat extraterrestrial Canary Island, we visited his home. And the refuge from the portuguese censorship that haunted the writer.
Masai Mara Reservation, Masai Land Travel, Kenya, Masai Convivial
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Masai Mara, Kenya

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Young people walk the main street in Chame, Nepal
Annapurna (circuit)
Annapurna Circuit: 1th - Pokhara a ChameNepal

Finally, on the way

After several days of preparation in Pokhara, we left towards the Himalayas. The walking route only starts in Chame, at 2670 meters of altitude, with the snowy peaks of the Annapurna mountain range already in sight. Until then, we complete a painful but necessary road preamble to its subtropical base.
hacienda mucuyche, Yucatan, Mexico, canal
Architecture & Design
Yucatan, Mexico

Among Haciendas and Cenotes, through the History of Yucatan

Around the capital Merida, for every old hacienda henequenera there's at least one cenote. As happened with the semi-recovered Hacienda Mucuyché, together, they form some of the most sublime places in southeastern Mexico.

Boats on ice, Hailuoto Island, Finland.
Adventure
Hailuoto, Finland

A Refuge in the Gulf of Bothnia

During winter, the island of Hailuoto is connected to the rest of Finland by the country's longest ice road. Most of its 986 inhabitants esteem, above all, the distance that the island grants them.
Moa on a beach in Rapa Nui/Easter Island
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Easter Island, Chile

The Take-off and Fall of the Bird-Man Cult

Until the XNUMXth century, the natives of Easter Island they carved and worshiped great stone gods. All of a sudden, they started to drop their moai. The veneration of tanatu manu, a half-human, half-sacred leader, decreed after a dramatic competition for an egg.
Resident of Dali, Yunnan, China
Cities
Dali, China

The Surrealist China of Dali

Embedded in a magical lakeside setting, the ancient capital of the Bai people has remained, until some time ago, a refuge for the backpacker community of travelers. The social and economic changes of China they fomented the invasion of Chinese to discover the southwest corner of the nation.
Tsukiji fish market, Tokyo, Japan
Meal
Tokyo, Japan

The Fish Market That Lost its Freshness

In a year, each Japanese eats more than their weight in fish and shellfish. Since 1935, a considerable part was processed and sold in the largest fish market in the world. Tsukiji was terminated in October 2018, and replaced by Toyosu's.
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Culture
Saariselka, Finland

The Delightful Arctic Heat

It is said that the Finns created SMS so they don't have to talk. The imagination of cold Nordics is lost in the mist of their beloved saunas, real physical and social therapy sessions.
4th of July Fireworks-Seward, Alaska, United States
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Seward, Alaska

The Longest 4th of July

The independence of the United States is celebrated, in Seward, Alaska, in a modest way. Even so, the 4th of July and its celebration seem to have no end.
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Buy Flights Before Prices Take Off

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Cahuita National Park, Costa Rica, Caribbean, Punta Cahuita aerial view
Ethnic
Cahuita, Costa Rica

Dreadlocked Costa Rica

Traveling through Central America, we explore a Costa Rican coastline as much as the Caribbean. In Cahuita, Pura Vida is inspired by an eccentric faith in Jah and a maddening devotion to cannabis.
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Got2Globe Photo Portfolio
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One Sun, So Many Lights

Most travel photos are taken in sunlight. Sunlight and weather form a capricious interaction. Learn how to predict, detect and use at its best.
Moai, Rano Raraku, Easter Island, Rapa Nui, Chile
History
Rapa Nui - Easter Island, Chile

Under the Moais Watchful Eye

Rapa Nui was discovered by Europeans on Easter Day 1722. But if the Christian name Easter Island makes sense, the civilization that colonized it by observant moais remains shrouded in mystery.
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Islands
Aruba

Aruba: The Island in the Right Place

It is believed that the Caquetío natives called him oruba, or “well situated island”. Frustrated by the lack of gold, the Spanish discoverers called it a “useless island”. As we travel through its Caribbean summit, we realize how much more sense Aruba's first baptism always made.
Oulu Finland, Passage of Time
Winter White
Oulu, Finland

Oulu: an Ode to Winter

Located high in the northeast of the Gulf of Bothnia, Oulu is one of Finland's oldest cities and its northern capital. A mere 220km from the Arctic Circle, even in the coldest months it offers a prodigious outdoor life.
On the Crime and Punishment trail, St. Petersburg, Russia, Vladimirskaya
Literature
Saint Petersburg, Russia

On the Trail of "Crime and Punishment"

In St. Petersburg, we cannot resist investigating the inspiration for the base characters in Fyodor Dostoevsky's most famous novel: his own pities and the miseries of certain fellow citizens.
Spitzkoppe, Namibia, water mirror
Nature
Spitzkoppe, Damaraland, Namíbia

Namibia's Sharp Mountain

At 1728 meters, the “Namibian Matterhorn” rises below the ten highest elevations in Namibia. None of them compare to Spitzkoppe's dramatic and emblematic granite sculpture.
Mother Armenia Statue, Yerevan, Armenia
Autumn
Yerevan, Armenia

A Capital between East and West

Heiress of the Soviet civilization, aligned with the great Russia, Armenia allows itself to be seduced by the most democratic and sophisticated ways of Western Europe. In recent times, the two worlds have collided in the streets of your capital. From popular and political dispute, Yerevan will dictate the new course of the nation.
Alcatraz Island, California, United States
Natural Parks
Alcatraz, San Francisco, USA

Back to the Rock

Forty years after his sentence ended, the former Alcatraz prison receives more visitors than ever. A few minutes of his seclusion explain why The Rock's imagination made the worst criminals shiver.
Military Religious, Wailing Wall, IDF Flag Oath, Jerusalem, Israel
UNESCO World Heritage
Jerusalem, Israel

A Festive Wailing Wall

The holiest place in Judaism is not only attended by prayers and prayers. Its ancient stones have witnessed the oath of new IDF recruits for decades and echo the euphoric screams that follow.
Era Susi towed by dog, Oulanka, Finland
Characters
PN Oulanka, Finland

A Slightly Lonesome Wolf

Jukka “Era-Susi” Nordman has created one of the largest packs of sled dogs in the world. He became one of Finland's most iconic characters but remains faithful to his nickname: Wilderness Wolf.
Bather rescue in Boucan Canot, Reunion Island
Beaches
Reunion Island

The Bathing Melodrama of Reunion

Not all tropical coastlines are pleasurable and refreshing retreats. Beaten by violent surf, undermined by treacherous currents and, worse, the scene of the most frequent shark attacks on the face of the Earth, that of the Reunion Island he fails to grant his bathers the peace and delight they crave from him.
Gangtok House, Sikkim, India
Religion
Gangtok, India

An Hillside Life

Gangtok it is the capital of Sikkim, an ancient kingdom in the Himalayas section of the Silk Road, which became an Indian province in 1975. The city is balanced on a slope, facing Kanchenjunga, the third highest elevation in the world that many natives believe shelters a paradise valley of Immortality. Their steep and strenuous Buddhist existence aims, there, or elsewhere, to achieve it.
Executives sleep subway seat, sleep, sleep, subway, train, Tokyo, Japan
On Rails
Tokyo, Japan

Tokyo's Hypno-Passengers

Japan is served by millions of executives slaughtered with infernal work rates and sparse vacations. Every minute of respite on the way to work or home serves them for their inemuri, napping in public.
Weddings in Jaffa, Israel,
Society
Jaffa, Israel

Where Tel Aviv Settles Always in Party

Tel Aviv is famous for the most intense night in the Middle East. But, if its youngsters are having fun until exhaustion in the clubs along the Mediterranean, it is more and more in the nearby Old Jaffa that they tie the knot.
Coin return
Daily life
Dawki, India

Dawki, Dawki, Bangladesh on sight

We descended from the high and mountainous lands of Meghalaya to the flats to the south and below. There, the translucent and green stream of the Dawki forms the border between India and Bangladesh. In a damp heat that we haven't felt for a long time, the river also attracts hundreds of Indians and Bangladeshis in a picturesque escape.
Amboseli National Park, Mount Kilimanjaro, Normatior Hill
Wildlife
Amboseli National Park, Kenya

A Gift from the Kilimanjaro

The first European to venture into these Masai haunts was stunned by what he found. And even today, large herds of elephants and other herbivores roam the pastures irrigated by the snow of Africa's biggest mountain.
Full Dog Mushing
Scenic Flights
Seward, Alaska

The Alaskan Dog Mushing Summer

It's almost 30 degrees and the glaciers are melting. In Alaska, entrepreneurs have little time to get rich. Until the end of August, dog mushing cannot stop.